The following points highlight the top thirteen factors of resisting the threats of microbes. Some of the factors are: 1. Microbial Adaptation and Change 2. Human Vulnerability 3. Climate and Weather 4. Changing Ecosystems 5. Economic Development and Land Use 6. Human Demographics and Behaviour 7. Technology and Industry 8. International Travel and Commerce 9. Breakdown of Public Health Measures and Others.
Factor # 1. Microbial Adaptation and Change:
The tremendous evolutionary potential of microbes makes them adept at developing resistance to even the most potent drug therapies and complicates attempts at creating effective vaccines.
Factor # 2. Human Vulnerability:
Susceptibility to infection can result when normal defence mechanisms are impaired by causes such as genetically inherited traits and malnutrition. Susceptibility can also result from antimicrobial resistance induced by the promiscuous use of antibiotics.
Factor # 3. Climate and Weather:
Climate can directly affect disease transmission through its impacts on the replication, movement, and evolution of microbes and vectors; climate can also operate indirectly through its effects on ecology and human behaviour.
Factor # 4. Changing Ecosystems:
Altered environments have immense influence on the transmission of microbial agents, whether waterborne, airborne, foodborne, or vector-borne.
Factor # 5. Economic Development and Land Use:
Commercial activities can have intended or unintended impacts on the environment. For example, new or previously unknown infectious diseases have emerged from the increased human contact with animal reservoirs that resulted from changing land-use patterns.
Factor # 6. Human Demographics and Behaviour:
Infectious diseases can result from individuals ‘ activities that involve exposure to microbial pathogens or simply from the increased probability of infectious disease as populations grow and people come into closer contact.
Factor # 7. Technology and Industry:
Advances in medical technologies, such as blood transfusions and organ transplants, have created new pathways for the spread of certain infections. Meanwhile, the use of antibiotics in food-product animals has heightened antimicrobial resistance.
Factor # 8. International Travel and Commerce:
The rapid and virtually unrestricted transport of humans, animals, foods, and other goods can lead to the broad dissemination of pathogens and their vectors throughout the world.
Factor # 9. Breakdown of Public Health Measures:
In many places, the lack of basics such as potable water or sanitation contributes to infectious diseases. But similar effects can also occur elsewhere from inadequate vaccine supplies, low immunisation rates, or a paucity of expertise -say, in vector control.
Factor # 10. Poverty and Social Inequality:
Mortality from infectious diseases is closely correlated with global inequities in income. Economic trends affect not only the individuals at risk but also the structure and availability of public health institutions necessary to reduce risks.
Factor # 11. War and Famine:
Displacement caused by war and the fairly consistent squealed of malnutrition from famine can contribute significantly to the emergence and spread of infectious diseases.
Factor # 12. Lack of Political Will:
It is not only the governments in the regions of highest disease prevalence that must commit themselves, but also the leaders of affluent regions that ultimately share the same global microbial landscape.
Factor # 13. Intent to Harm:
The world today is vulnerable to the threat of deliberate biological attacks that can cause large numbers of deaths and widespread social disruption. The likelihood of such events, in fact, is high, and public health systems and health care providers must be prepared to address them.