In this article we will discuss about Personalized medicine:- 1. Concept of Personalized Medicine 2. Advantages of Personalized Medicine.
Concept of Personalized Medicine:
Personalized medicine is not to be confused with “genetic medicine”. Personalized medicine is a medical concept/model that proposes the customization of health care, with all decisions and practices being transcribed to the individual patient by use of genetic or other information.
It is a young but advancing field of health care that is based on each person’s unique clinical, genetic, genomic, and environmental information. Because these factors are different for every person, the nature of diseases—including their onset, their course, and how they might respond to drugs or other interventions—is as individual as the people who have them.
Personalized medicine is about making the treatment as individualized as the disease. It involves identifying genetic, genomic, and clinical information that allows accurate predictions to be made about a person’s susceptibility of developing disease, the course of disease, and its response to treatment.
Practical application to this concept is absolutely limited to the conventional/traditional considerations like a patient’s family history, social circumstances, environment and behaviours and no such significant progress has been made in the last decade.
Advantages of Personalized Medicine:
a. Ability to make more informed medical decisions
b. Higher probability of desired outcomes due to better-targeted therapies
c. Reduced probability of negative side-effects
d. Focus on prevention and prediction of disease rather than reaction to it
e. Earlier disease intervention in comparison to the past
f. Reduced health care costs.
However, personalized or genomic medicine is not only for the individuals with illness because an individual’s genome influences his or her likelihood of developing (or not developing) a broad range of medical conditions, personalized medicine focuses strongly on wellness and disease prevention.
For example, if a person’s genomic information indicates a higher-than-average risk of developing diabetes or a particular form of cancer, that person may choose a lifestyle, or sometimes be prescribed medications, to better regulate the aspects of health and wellness over which he or she has control.
The person may benefit in the long run from making preventive lifestyle choices that will help counteract the biological risk.
Genomic medicine may help determine a person’s risk of developing several specific medical conditions, including:
b. Cardiovascular disease
c. Neurodegenerative diseases
f. Neuropsychiatric disorders
Moreover researchers are actively investigating the genomic and genetic mechanisms behind—and developing predictive testing for—such diverse medical conditions as:
a. Infectious diseases, from HIV/AIDS to the common cold
b. Ovarian cancer
c. Cardiovascular disease
e. Metabolic abnormalities
f. Neuropsychiatric conditions, such as epilepsy
g. Adverse drug reactions
h. Environmental exposure to toxins.